Zika Breaking News

Zika breaking news brought to you by Zika News.

May 4, 2022 • 10:19 am CDT
by eveliendm

The World Health Organization (WHO) previously stated 'In India, ZIKV disease South-East Asian lineage has been detected in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan states in 2018.

Although Zika outbreaks are not unexpected, given the wide distribution of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, and competent vector, Aedes albopictus, in Kerala and Maharashtra states, says the WHO.

In 2021, about 8,627 samples were tested, of which 152 were found positive for the Zika virus, reported local media.

However, the WHO considered the overall risk to be 'low' at the regional and global levels.

In contrast, the national level (Kerala and Maharashtra States) is currently assessed as 'moderate.'

Various travel advisories have been issued to notify international visitors of these areas.

On March 29, 2022, the U.S. CDC reissued an Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions, regarding the Zika outbreak in Uttar Pradesh, India.

The CDC Alert was initially published in December 2021.

The CDC previously issued Travel Alerts for COVID-19 and Dengue outbreaks in India.

These announcements were edited for clarity and manually curated for mobile readership.

Apr 4, 2022 • 3:12 am CDT
WHO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently announced the launch of the Global Arbovirus Initiative, an integrated strategic plan to tackle emerging and re-emerging arboviruses with epidemic and pandemic potential.

The most common arboviruses are mosquito-borne illnesses, such as Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya, and Zika.

Zika virus gained worldwide notoriety in 2016 when it was found to cause congenital disabilities such as microencephaly.

Zika remains a health threat in tropical and sub-tropical parts (map) and has been detected in about 89 countries.

"Arboviruses" might not be something most of us are familiar with. Still, they're a deadly threat to almost four billion people, so the UN health agency launched a plan on March 31, 2022, to prevent them from causing a new pandemic.

In a related press statement, Dr. Mike Ryan, head of the WHO's Emergency Programme, explained that the scheme would allow health authorities to tackle the "broad but related threats" posed by Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya, and Zika.

"For each of these diseases, there have been gains in different aspects of surveillance response, research, and development," he said.

"But sustainability is often limited to the scope and duration and scope of disease-specific projects."

"There is an urgent need to re-evaluate the tools at hand and how these can be used across diseases to ensure an efficient response, evidence-based practice, equipped and trained personnel, and engagement of communities."

Furthermore, according to WHO data, Zika outbreaks could continue.

Information on Zika vaccine candidates is posted on this ZikaNew.com/vaccine page.

Note: This news article edited WHO information for clarity and was manually curated for mobile readers.

Feb 26, 2022 • 9:04 am CST

The peer-reviewed New England Journal of Medicine published a recent study from Brazil that found certain children born with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) had a significantly greater mortality risk.

In this study published on Feb. 24, 2022, about 11 million live-born children were followed to 36 months of age.

The mortality rate was 52.6 deaths (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.6 to 58.0) per 1000 person-years among live-born children with CZS.

Compared with 5.6 deaths (95% CI, 5.6 to 5.7) per 1000 person-years among those without the syndrome. 

The burden of congenital anomalies, diseases of the nervous system, and infectious diseases as recorded causes of deaths were higher among live-born children with CZS than among those without the syndrome.

Additional Zika news is published on this weblink.

Feb 21, 2022 • 1:04 pm CST

The Zika virus continues to be a problem in many parts of the world and is often tough to detect. So when considering your next Caribbean travel destination, calculating your ability to protect yourself from mosquito bites is essential.

The Puerto Rico Department of Health Weekly Arboviral Diseases report indicates the Zika virus continues to infect people in 2022. 

The Report published on Feb. 14, 2022, shows (1) new 'probable' Zika cases confirmed in the San Juan, Puerto Rico vicinity.

These Zika cases are in addition to the (101) probable cases reported during 2021, with (10) near the city of San Juan.

The term "probable cases" is defined as infections with a positive serological test (IgM). 

Unfortunately, since Zika virus antibodies can persist for years after infection, serology cannot distinguish between a recent or past infection.

In the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in 2020, there were (4) locally acquired Zika cases and (47) travel-related.

And none in 2021.

The CDC hosts a world map that displays Zika cases.

As of Feb. 20, 2022, the U.S. FDA has not authorized a Zika vaccine. However, several Zika vaccine candidates are conducting human clinical trials listed on this web page.

Feb 19, 2022 • 8:39 am CST

The ability of the Zika virus to cross the placental and blood-brain barriers to cause severe neurological disorders in developing fetuses makes the development of vaccines to prevent Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) an urgent global health priority, wrote researchers in a peer-reviewed study published by the journal NPJ Vaccines - Nature on Feb. 17, 2022.

In the current study, both prime and prime-boost vaccination with the ZPIV vaccine candidate provided 80% efficacy in protection against fetal malformations after ZIKV infection during pregnancy in C57BL/6 mice.

Importantly, neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protecting dams and fetuses against ZIKV infection.

ZPIV also is safe in healthy non-pregnant humans.

Because of its expected safety profile, inactivated virus vaccines, including ZPIV adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, would be a potentially favored platform for vaccinating pregnant women.

This aspect was not examined in the current study.

Further preclinical studies are necessary to investigate the efficacy of ZPIV vaccination during pregnancy.

Zika News publishes updated vaccine development news.

Jan 23, 2022 • 10:19 am CST

According to a new estimate published in U.S. CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) on January 21, 2022, about 5% of U.S. infants born to mothers with a confirmed or possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy had a Zika-associated brain or eye defect.

This new study reconfirms a Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious congenital disabilities of the brain and eyes, including intracranial calcifications, cerebral or cortical atrophy, chorioretinal abnormalities, and optic nerve abnormalities.

The frequency of these Zika-associated brain and eye defects, based on data from the U.S. Zika Pregnancy and Infant Registry (USZPIR), has been previously reported in aggregate.

Among 6,799 live-born infants in USZPIR born during December 1, 2015–March 31, 2018, 4.6% had any Zika-associated birth defect.

In a subgroup of pregnancies with a positive nucleic acid amplification test for Zika virus infection, the percentage was 6.1% of live-born infants.

The brain and eye defects most frequently reported included microcephaly, corpus callosum abnormalities, intracranial calcification, abnormal cortical gyral patterns, ventriculomegaly, cerebral or cortical atrophy, chorioretinal abnormalities, and optic nerve abnormalities.

About one-third of infants with any Zika-associated congenital disability had more than one defect reported.

And these brain and eye defects in an infant might prompt suspicion of prenatal Zika virus infection.

Moreover, among 325 pregnancies with laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection that resulted in a pregnancy loss, 4% of fetuses had any reported Zika-associated congenital disability (C Moore, CDC, unpublished data, 2022).

These findings can help target surveillance efforts to the most common brain and eye defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy should a Zika virus outbreak reemerge, and might signal the reemergence of Zika virus, particularly in geographic regions without ongoing comprehensive Zika virus surveillance.

The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, these data are based on information abstracted from medical records.

Although CDC provided specific guidance for evaluating all infants born from pregnancies with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy, these evaluations might not have been feasible, were not always conducted, or were not found in records.

Corresponding author: Nicole M. Roth, [email protected].

Dec 10, 2021 • 2:54 pm CST

The U.S. CDC announced on December 9, 2021, a new Level 2 Travel Advisory has been issued for the Zika outbreak in Uttar Pradesh, India.

Since October 2021, hundreds of Zika cases have been confirmed.

Zika is spread mainly through the bite of an infected mosquito. The types of mosquitoes that spread Zika bite people during the day and early evening.  

Moreover, travelers to Uttar Pradesh should take steps to prevent mosquito bites.

Zika can also be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to their sex partners. Therefore, not having sex eliminates the risk of getting Zika from sex.

Using condoms during sex can reduce the chance of getting Zika.

Zika can be passed from pregnant women to their fetuses, causing specific congenital disabilities, such as microcephaly. 

Furthermore, the CDC says pregnant women should NOT travel to areas with outbreaks of Zika. 

If visiting an area known for Zika transmission, the CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women, the sex partners of pregnant women, and people considering pregnancy.

As of December 10, 2021, the U.S. FDA has not approved a Zika prevention vaccine.

Nov 17, 2021 • 1:20 pm CST

Japan-based Takada Vaccines, Inc. has scheduled a poster presentation for November 19, 2021, during the annual American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene digital meeting.

This presentation, led by Erick Perez-Guzman, Mayuri Sharma, Ralph Braun with Takeda, will discuss how Zika virus-specific antibodies that can be distinguished from antibodies to other flaviviruses (FV), which will improve differential diagnosis and support the development of Zika vaccines in flavivirus-endemic regions''''Zika virus (ZIKV) re-emergence and spread into flavivirus endemic regions have caused serodiagnostic challenges due to antibody cross-reactivity among the FVs.

Currently, there are no viral envelope protein-based assays available to quantitatively measure ZIKV-specific antibody responses in individuals with prior FV exposure.

These presenters describe the development of a ZIKV-specific competitive microsphere-based immunoassay to support ongoing clinical trials of Takeda's purified inactivated ZIKV vaccine (PIZV) candidate.

The assay design allows ZIKV-specific antibodies present in plasma or serum samples to compete with the binding of an anti-ZIKV EDIII monoclonal antibody to a specific epitope on ZIKV virus-like particles coupled to Luminex magnetic microspheres. ZIKV-specific antibody levels in the presence or absence of antibodies to other FVs can then be determined in the samples.

Human and non-human primate (NHP) sample panels exposed to different FVs, including ZIKV, dengue virus (all four serotypes), Yellow Fever virus, Saint Louis Encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, and Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus, were assessed using this assay.

The assay quantified ZIKV-specific antibodies in all presumptive or confirmed ZIKV or PIZV-immune samples, while all other FV-immune samples were negative in the assay.

Of note, the assay was also able to quantify PIZV-elicited ZIKV-specific antibodies in the presence of cross-reactive antibodies from prior FV vaccination.

In summary, these presenters say our data suggest that the assay can differentiate ZIKV-specific antibodies from antibodies to other FVs elicited by natural infection or vaccination.''

Availability of a ZIKV-specific antibody-based immunoassay will improve differential diagnosis, serosurveillance and support the development and implementation of ZIKV vaccines in FV endemic regions.

Takeda's Zika vaccine candidate (TAK-426; PIZV) is a purified, inactivated, alum-adjuvanted, whole Zika virus vaccine candidate conducting clinical studies.

Nov 8, 2021 • 3:45 pm CST

At least 89 people in Kanpur, India, have tested positive for the Zika virus, reported India.com. As a result, an alert has been issued, and the local authorities have launched a massive vector control drive to curb the spread of infected mosquitoes.

Dr. Nepal Singh, chief medical officer of Kanpur district in India's most populous state of Uttar Pradesh, told Reuters on November 8, 2021, "There has been a surge in cases of the Zika virus."

"The health department has formed several teams to contain the spread."

According to media reports, Health teams had recently collected blood samples of 525 people were sent to the virology lab of the King George's Medical University in Lucknow and the National Institute of Virology in Pune for testing.

The first Zika case in Kanpur was reported on October 23, 2021, when an Indian Air Force warrant officer tested positive for the virus.

Kanpur is located southeast of New Delhi in northern India and has about 2.9 million residents.

As of November 8, the U.S. FDA has not authorized a Zik preventive vaccine. However, several vaccine candidates are currently conducting clinical studies.

Oct 26, 2021 • 2:07 pm CDT

Though the number of Zika virus infections has decreased since 2018, scientists speculate they may be due to herd immunity in some areas.

However, there is still potential for future outbreaks.

Scientists want to understand how the human immune system recognizes the Zika virus to develop preventive vaccines.

Shannon Esswein, a graduate student, and Pamela Bjorkman, a professor at the California Institute of Technology, presented new insights on how the body’s antibodies attach to the Zika virus. These insights were published in PNAS, February 25, 2021.

To study the antibody response to Zika and other flaviviruses, Esswein and Bjorkman looked at several antibodies from the blood of patients from Mexico and Brazil.

To find antibodies that recognize flaviviruses, they used a piece of the outside of the virus, called the envelope domain III protein.

Previous studies have shown the envelope domain III is an essential target of protective antibodies that fight flavivirus infections.

The researchers studied how those antibodies changed over time as they mature and became better able to stick to the Zika virus and how the antibodies cross-react with other flaviviruses, including the four types of dengue viruses.

They found that the Zika antibodies also tightly stick to and defend against dengue type 1 and weakly stick to West Nile and dengue types 2 and 4.

“The weak cross-reactivity of these antibodies doesn’t seem to defend against those flaviviruses, but also doesn’t induce ADE,” Esswein said, suggesting envelope domain III may be useful to make a safe vaccine.

They also determined structures showing how two antibodies recognize Zika and West Nile envelope domain III.

Together, the team’s experiments show how the body mounts “a potent immune response to Zika virus,” says Esswein.

Their insights into the antibodies involved in this immune response will help inform vaccine design strategy.

As of October 26, 2021, the U.S. FDA had not approved a Zika vaccine.

Oct 18, 2021 • 1:17 pm CDT

The Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District in Califor announced on October 12, 2021, that the invasive mosquito Aedes aegypti had been found within the City of Sacramento.

Invasive mosquitoes are a public health threat because they can transmit debilitating diseases, including Zika, dengue, and chikungunya.

The detection occurred when a single female mosquito was caught by a trap set near Camelia Park in south Sacramento as part of the District’s ongoing surveillance program.  

The following day, traps were set in the vicinity, leading to additional findings of invasive mosquitoes. 

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have also been detected in Orangevale, Elk Grove, Arden-Arcade in Sacramento County, and the City of Winters in Yolo County. 

“Finding these mosquitoes in a completely new area likely means they could be established anywhere. Therefore, we will continue to work diligently looking for and identifying locations where these mosquitoes could be breeding,” stated Gary Goodman, District Manager. 

Aedes aegypti are not native to California; however, they are now permanently established in many areas throughout the State.

“We are at the peak of the season for detecting invasive mosquitoes when they are very active,” added Goodman.

Invasive mosquitoes were first discovered within District boundaries in 2019 in Citrus Heights.

In response to the new detection site, the District will enhance surveillance efforts by setting up additional traps in surrounding neighborhoods to determine the scope of the infestation.

In southern California, Aedes mosquitoes have been found in Los Angeles County.

But have not found any mosquitoes infected with the Zika virus.

To date, all cases of Zika in Los Angeles County acquired their infection when traveling outside of California. Information on the number of Zika cases detected in Los Angeles County is available at this link.

Oct 14, 2021 • 6:15 pm CDT

The Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition in the USA. Using standard case definitions, cases are reported to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by state, territorial, and local health departments.

Since antibodies against Zika can persist for years after infection, serology cannot distinguish between a recent or past Zika infection. 

As of October 5, 2021, the CDC confirmed there had been only one Zika virus disease case related to an international traveler in the USA.

In 2021, there have been no confirmed Zika virus disease cases reported from U.S. territories. Additionally, many suspect Zika cases from the territories have been tested using molecular testing, and none have been positive.

However, twenty-two Zika cases were acquired through local mosquito-borne transmission in the U.S. Territories in the past.

In 2020, there were active Zika virus transmissions reported in Puerto Rico.

These presumed locally acquired cases of Zika in the U.S. territories were diagnosed using serologic testing, which detects antibodies against Zika.

Until there is a U.S. FDA-approved Zika vaccine, the best way to prevent a Zika infection is by avoiding mosquito bites, says the CDC.

Oct 14, 2021 • 3:50 pm CDT

The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed today a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was laboratory-confirmed in a resident of Kerala state, located in southwest India, in early July 2021.

This represents the first Zika virus disease case ever reported from Kerala.

The patient was a 24-year-old pregnant woman in her third trimester of pregnancy resident in Trivandrum district.

On June 28, 2021, she was admitted to a private hospital with arbovirus like symptoms of fever, headache, and general rash.

The woman delivered her child on July 7, 2021, and was reportedly in good health, and there were no apparent birth defects in the newborn.

So far, no cases of microcephaly and/or Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) have been linked with this outbreak.

In the three months before delivery, she had resided in the Trivandrum district, not having traveled during that period. Among close contacts, her mother reported having fever and similar symptoms one week before ZIKV confirmation in her daughter.

On July 8, 2021, the State of Kerala issued guidelines on enhanced surveillance for ZIKV disease and sent guidance to all 14 districts.

Information, Education, and Communication activities about ZIKV disease have been strengthened immediately throughout the State. In addition, sensitization activities across the State for both health care workers and the general public are ongoing.

And ultrasound scanning centers have been directed to report incidences of microcephaly during regular antenatal scans to the Reproductive and Child Health Officer.

In the Trivandrum district, which has been declared a cluster of ZIKV disease cases, intensified vector control activities have been conducted for a week, including; extensive fogging, spraying, larvicides, source reduction, and sanitization of the surrounding areas.

Additionally, field teams visited each household to conduct active case findings, ensure elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and sensitize the community to preventive mosquito control measures and identification of ZIKV disease symptoms to seek timely medical assistance.

The WHO was requested to support the country’s updates on standard operating procedures and guidelines for syndromic and case-based surveillance; laboratory surveillance; vector surveillance; enhanced surveillance among antenatal women; microcephaly surveillance; surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and GBS.

In India, previous ZIKV disease cases/infections have been detected in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan states in 2018 (South-East Asian lineage), but no ZIKV-associated microcephaly has been reported.

Although this event is not unexpected, given the wide distribution of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, and competent vector, Aedes albopictus, in Kerala and Maharashtra states, this is unusual as it is the first time that ZIKV disease cases have been confirmed in these states.

The primary vector Aedes aegypti, and competent vector Aedes albopictus, are established in the area, often in high densities. The ecological conditions are favorable for ZIKV transmission and potential endemicity.

For regions with active transmission of ZIKV, all persons with suspected ZIKV infection and their sexual partners (particularly pregnant women) should receive information about the risks of sexual transmission of ZIKV.

And for regions with no active transmission of ZIKV, WHO recommends practicing safer sex or abstinence for six months for men and two months for women who are returning from areas of active ZIKV transmission to prevent infection of their sex partners.

In addition, sexual partners of pregnant women living in or returning from areas where local transmission of ZIKV occurs should practice safer sex or abstain from sexual activity throughout pregnancy.

Jul 10, 2021 • 6:57 am CDT

Data from nine cities in Mexico confirms that identifying dengue fever “hot spots” can provide a predictive map for future outbreaks of Zika and chikungunya. All three of these viral diseases are spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

This study's results found a 62% overlap of hot spots for dengue and Zika and a 53% overlap for cases of dengue and chikungunya.

The journal Lancet Planetary Health published the research on July 7, 2021. This study provides a risk-stratification method to more effectively guide the control of diseases spread by Aedes aegypti.

The work was funded by USAID, the U.S. CDC, the Canadian Institute of Public Health, the state of Yucatan, the National Institutes of Health, and Emory University.

Medical Review by
Jul 10, 2021 • 6:42 am CDT

India's Kerala state Health Minister Veena George confirmed on July 10, 2021, that there are currently 14 cases of Zika virus in the state. "Our dept is on high alert and monitoring the situation closely," posted Asian News International on Twitter.

A 24-year-old pregnant woman was found to be infected with the mosquito-borne disease and was undergoing treatment at a hospital in Thiruvananthapuram city.

According to the U.S. CDC, pregnant women are particularly vulnerable. This is because they can transmit the infection to their newborns, resulting in life-altering conditions such as microcephaly, which causes babies to be born with a smaller head due to abnormalities in brain development. Adults can also get Guillain-Barre syndrome.

As of June 29, 2021, the CDC confirmed 12 Zika cases acquired through presumed local mosquito-borne transmission in Puerto Rica during 2021.

Several Zika vaccine candidates are in various stages of a clinical study, but the U.S. FDA has not Apporved any Zika vaccines.

Medical Review by